Bride-stealing centaur or bride-stealing hero? You decide.

Mythology, Sons of Apollo Series

Hercules, the greatest of the Greek heroes, had several dealings with the centaurs, each episode more famous than the last. One notable encounter was his fight with the centaur Eurytion (Eurytos in some versions of the myth) for the hand of the beautiful princess, Deianeira.
Her father, King Dexamenos promised her to the centaur as a bride out of fear of violence. Before the marriage could take place, the king appealed to Hercules to rescue his daughter, for which he would award the bride to the hero instead.
Hercules slew Eurytion and married Deianeira. The hero subsequently journeyed with his wife and came to the river Evenus where they encountered another centaur named Nessos.
Like the account of Pholus, this is another story where the details were changed to accommodate the audience and there are several different versions of the myth. In some versions, the princess in question is named Mnesimache or Hippolyte. Other versions claim the bride was first promised to Hercules and Eurytion attempted rape at the wedding feast. In yet another variation, the princess had been seduced by Hercules during a visit. Upon his departure, the hero promised to return to marry the girl. In his absence, the centaur, Eurytion, appealed to the king for his daughter’s hand. When Hercules found out, he then returned to slay the centaur and claim his bride.
In all these various tales the centaurs seem overwhelmingly to get the bad rap, even in instances where the facts don’t seem to implicate them in any licentious behavior. The centaurs seem to be guilty as a matter of principle, particularly when pitted against such a popularly renowned hero as Hercules. The one exception to this uncivilized portrayal of the centaurs was Kheiron, the trainer of Greek heroes- including Hercules.
In all this telling and retelling of the events, I wonder if the centaurs would have their own perspective of the facts. After all, it was Hercules who was reported to have slain his first wife and children in a drunken rage (the very act for which his penance was to complete his famous 12 labors), not the centaurs, who seem to have to fight for the right to have a bride in the first place.
These were some of the questions that led me to write my series, Sons of Apollo, and explore the facts through the eyes of the accused. Why were the centaurs so widely hated and feared? Or were they simply misunderstood? What about their culture (so one-sidedly portrayed and always from the outside looking in) makes them subject to villainy in popular mythology? Or were they destined to lose by virtue of their demi-god competitor, Hercules? After all who could compete with the son of Zeus himself?
Read the first chapter of Mate For a Centaur, which is the first book in my series, and decide for yourself if the centaurs are villains or victims of circumstance and rumor.
Or download a Free coloring page featuring one of the centaur characters from my series.

Hero Versus Centaur- Hercules and Nessos

Sons of Apollo Series

The most well known centaur myth is the story of Hercules and Nessos (Nessus in Latin). It is a relatively short, but exciting tale, full of seduction, intrigue, deception, revenge and a fight to the death.

After the battle with the Lapithe and subsequent expulsion from their homeland in Thessaly, the centaurs fled to various regions of Hellas (Ancient Greece). Nessos settled at the river Evenus where he became a ferryman, carrying people across the river on his back. When Hercules brought his new bride, Deianira (whom he had won by defeating another centaur by the name of Eurytos), Nessos volunteered to ferry the woman safely through the swift current to the opposite bank. Halfway across, however, Nessos became infatuated with his beautiful passenger and lust won over reason. Nessos attempted to seduce and kidnap Hercules’ bride. Deianira screamed for help and Hercules leapt to the rescue, shooting Nessos with one of his Hyrda-poisoned arrows. In some versions of the myth, Hercules beats the centaur with his club, and thereby rescuing his bride.

Unlike their leader, Kheiron, centaurs were traditionally characterized as drunken, lustful, pugnacious and uncivilized. The depiction of Nessos in this myth is no exception. Perhaps this can be attributed to the fact that all the stories featuring individual centaurs were often pitted against the most popular Greek hero, Hercules. The hero must have a villain to defeat. Still, the story of Nessos follows a familiar pattern inherent in all the stories about centaurs. First, a situation involving a beautiful woman and an encounter with a centaur. Second, the centaur feels lustful toward the woman and attempts seduction. Third, the hero defeats the centaur- usually killing him and thereby rescues the damsel in distress. This theme is repeated over and over again, almost ad nauseam, or so it seemed to me as I delved deeper and deeper into my study of Greek mythology. Were the centaurs always the bad guys? What about their side of the story?

This negative portrayal of centaurs is still most common even in modern mythology with some few exceptions. Perhaps the most widely recognized version of this story is the Disney adaptation. Disney took some liberties with the story of Hercules and Nessos and its characters, giving the myth a cameo in their 1997 film, Hercules.

The more mythology I read, both ancient and modern, the more I recognized this trend. I began thinking, if I wanted to see a story that didn’t follow these themes and depicted the centaurs’ side of the story, that I would have to write one myself. And that was the inception of my series, Sons of Apollo, which follows the line of Kentauros, son of Apollo, and his descendants, giving an account of mythological events from the cultural perspective of the centaurs.

As is common with most centaur mythology, particularly that of antiquity, the battle of hero versus centaur is symbolic of the conflict of civility against barbarity, or more generally the embodiment of opposition.

To learn more about Nessos’ character in mythology, I recommend two of my favorite mythology websites:

theoi.com
Greek myth index

If you love mythology, then the series, Sons of Apollo, is for you. Sign up for my newsletter to read the first chapter of book 1, Mate For A Centaur.

Kheiron, Trainer Of Greek Gods, Heroes… And Centaurs.

Sons of Apollo Series

One of the most understated characters in all of Greek Mythology is Kheiron Khronides. Kheiron was a centaur who lived on Mount Pelion in Thessaly. Though never the star of his own story, his character wielded great influence in the lives of the gods and heroes of mythology as their revered mentor.

Kheiron (pronounced kay-ron, spelled Chiron in Latin), is derived from the Greek word for “hand” and the name means “skilled with hands” or “surgeon.” Khronides (pronounced crow-nee-days) means “son of Khronos” (or Cronus in Latin). Khronos was king of the Titans and ruled the gods before Zeus. Thus, making Zeus and Kheiron half-brothers. Kheiron’s mother was the nymph, Philyra, whom Khronos seduced in the form of a stallion. From this union Kheiron inherited his double form as a centaur- half horse, half man.

As a master in the arts of warfare, music and healing, Kheiron became the tutor and trainer of many of the heroes of Greek myth, including Hercules, Jason and Achilles, and some gods, such as Asklepios, God of Medicine. As such, Kheiron is an influential, though rarely a central, figure in much of mythology. Without Kheiron’s tutelage, these heroes would not have achieved their greatness. What is a hero without his mentor?

Kheiron is depicted much different from his equine kin in both Greek story and art. Often pictured as half-horse and half man from front to back, and wearing a robe, rather than the traditional top to bottom. He is described as wise and cultured, rather than wild and savage like other centaurs. I would speculate this unique representation symbolizes his reputation and legacy as distinct from his equine kin. Perhaps to indicate his more civilized nature.

This discrepancy between one centaur and the entirety of his race intrigued me, as did his role in mythology. Because of his integral part in the lives of those he tutored, his character grew in my mind, as well as his influence on the centaurian culture I was developing in my novel. My inspiration for the role of Kheiron in my stories came from the question, why wouldn’t such a benevolent and sophisticated character wish to help his own kin they way he mentored those prominent Greek heroes? I decided he would. I began with the other prominent centaurs from mythology and inferred that they would have received training from Kheiron as well, namely Nessos, Pholos, Eurytos and Kentauros, all of whom had run-ins with Heracles. My story takes place after the Centauromachy of Ovid’s Metamorphoses, and features the descendants of these principle students of Kheiron.

Another myth involving Kheiron is one with multiple accounts in which the details vary, though the general story is tragically similar. During a visit from the hero, Kheiron was accidentally wounded by Heracles’ hydra-poisoned arrows and traded his immortality to free Prometheus from torment. In some accounts the wounded centaur is Pholos and not Kheiron.

In mythology, when an immortal died, it was often referred to as being “placed among the stars.” Kheiron is consequently sometimes equated with Sagittarius, a sign of the Zodiac.

If you wish to learn more about Kheiron, I would recommend two of my favorite Greek mythology websites:

theoi.com

mythindex.com

Visit my project portfolio to view the concept art for the series: Sons of Apollo.

Sign up for my newsletter to read chapter one of the first book: Mate For A Centaur.

Battling The Centaurs And The Rest Of The Story.

Sons of Apollo Series

The most prominent Greek myth involving the centaurs that served as inspiration for my series, Sons of Apollo, is the story of the the battle between the Kentauroi (tribe of centaurs) and the Lapithe (tribe of men) who were their cousins. The centaurs and the Lapithe were descended from Apollo and the nymph Stilbe, who bore him twin sons, Kentauros, a centaur, and Lapithus, a man. Ovid, in his Metamorphoses, tells of the infamous battle from the perspective of Nestor, king of Pylos. It is a bloody story of the ultimate defeat of the centaurs by the Lapith men at the wedding feast of Pirithoos and Hippodameia.

Pirithoos is a descendant of Lapithus. As cousins of the bridegroom, the centaurs were invited to attend the festivities. Trouble started when the centaurs, namely one Eurytos, become drunk and attempt to rape the bride and her handmaids. Theseus and the other Greek heroes come to their rescue, slaying Eurytos and his companions and a brutal battle ensues.
I have used many of the names of the centaurs from this story however they are not intended to portray these specific characters as chronologically my story takes place after this battle and the centaurs’ subsequent expulsion from Thessaly.

The Centauromachy was a popular theme in ancient Greece and was abundantly depicted in sculpture, architecture, on pottery and in art. Two of the most well-known depictions of the Centauromachy are: the West Pediment Statuary on the Temple of Zeus in Olympia, and the southern metopes from the Parthenon on the Acropolis in Athens.

Interesting to note, is the fact that Ovid is a Roman writer, which is significant for a few reasons. The Roman empire came after the fall of the Greek empire, so Ovid’s story is a later account of a story which must have had earlier origins. The evidence of these earlier origins are the prominence of this story as subject matter in Greek art and architecture and on pottery. Since there are multiple versions of the similar stories from different authors of other myths, it is a safe assumption that Ovid’s account isn’t the first and that there were likely other versions told previously in the form of oral tradition, or even written copies which have been lost to time.

It was also common for local story tellers to change the details of their stories to appeal to their local audiences. Generally the story is the same but some of the details vary, such as the location and the characters. Because I encountered these differences frequently in my own study of the mythology, it supported my idea that the facts would vary if the centaurs were to have told their side of the story and the facts could be considered just as true from their perspective. This awarded me much fictional license with which to justify tweaking the facts to suit the centaurs’ point of view without changing the relative truth of the account.

In my story, the female centaurs arise chiefly as a result of that first battle rather than existing prior to it. That makes a bit of a chronological discrepancy in Ovid’s account, but since the mythology is already inherently full of these little discrepancies, I took that as liberty and justification. In the realm of mythological realism in ancient Greece, my accounts would be no more or less true than any of the others. And since that was my goal, to write something that could have existed parallel to the original mythology, but from the perspective of the centaurs, it works in my favor.

The story of the Centauromachy contains the only female centaur mentioned in myth. Whether she was a later addition of Ovid or simply the last remaining female centaur of oral tradition can only be left to speculation. Female centaurs were popularly depicted in later antiquity and described by historian, Pliny the Elder.

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Inspiration for my Novel Series: “Sons of Apollo”

Current Projects, Sons of Apollo Series

My series, Sons of Apollo, revolves primarily around the mythology about centaurs. In all of Greek mythology, the centaurs are positioned as the bad guys, defeated and driven off or slain by men who are the heroes. The story of the Centauromachy, the biggest battle involving the centaurs, is no exception. My stories were inspired by the question: wouldn’t the centaurs have their own version of the events?
My love for Greek mythology began at an early age when I first encountered the stories of Persephone and Medusa. I already knew I loved fairy tales and folklore, and particularly the fantastical creatures therein, so my introduction in elementary school to these stories was a natural gravitation into the realm of myth with its own heroes, heroines and creatures.
As I continued my study of mythology there were several themes that stood out to me, piquing my interest and fueling my imagination. Most of these themes have been woven into the series. These ideas became the seeds of creativity from which my story was born. The foremost being the way the centaurs were depicted in the mythology. Regarded as little more than animals, the centaurs are driven from their homeland, hated, hunted, feared and slain by men. All but one, Kheiron, (pronounced Kay-ron and sometimes spelled in the Latin, Cheiron) the centaur teacher and trainer of all the famous Greek heroes including Hercules, Jason, and Achilles. Kheiron was revered by gods, men and centaurs alike. This discrepancy intrigued me. I read and researched and filled in the missing information with my own ideas where I felt sufficient explanations were lacking. Though nowhere in mythology does it explicitly state it, I was convinced that such a generous and benevolent being would have offered the same training to his own kin which he offered to men. And thus, in my mind, a culture was born.
Another idea was the fact that there is only one female centaur mentioned in all of these myths. I wondered where she came from, why is she the only one? And was the absence of the female sex in their race the reason the centaurs always seemed to get themselves into trouble when it came to mating and producing offspring? If there were no female centaurs, or even very few of them, then women would be necessary for procreation. This conundrum became the catalyst I needed to first put pen to paper and begin to elaborate on all the “gaps” in mythology that I had begun to mentally refer to as my story. With my own struggle with infertility, the themes of procreation became more and more prominent in my writing. And my story grew.
Every story involving centaurs followed a similar pattern. The centaurs are always portrayed as drunken, riotous and lustful, easily provoked, easily riled and quick to steal away women in every opportunity they found. And always, in any altercation, they were the bad guys needing to be defeated. They were the antagonists in their own stories. But isn’t every villain a hero in his own story?

Book I: Mate For A Centaur is in the latter end of the revision stages, then on to editing and publication.
For a sneak peek at the conceptual art for my series visit my project portfolio. To read an excerpt and stay up to date on the progress of the series sign up for my newsletter.